Plants that live on Earth have the amazing ability to grow continuously for hundreds of decades, always towards the sun’s light, which provides them with the energy they need.
Changes in the environment are what cause this growth. However, current climate changes are causing new stimuli that disrupt normal plant growth.
As a doctoral candidate in biochemistry at the University of Québec in Montréal, I am interested in the structure of plant proteins, and study the ways plants adapt to environmental stresses (drought, cold, deficiencies) at the molecular level in order to select more resilient variants for agriculture.
Pando has an unmatched longevity
The The oldest forest on EarthPando, also known as the eagle, is over 80,000 years old. It is located in Utah and contains 40,000 genetically identical (clones), of quaking or trembling aspen trees. The colony communicates with one root network.
Pando is the oldest living organism in existence. This colony was formed in the early 1900s. It took 30,000 years for the first to be discovered. Homo sapiensLocated in Europe. Pando has thus been witness to the fullness of modern human life. The empires of China, Rome and Japan, World wars and also to humanity’s greatest feats.
Nonetheless, the colony’s poplars have not grown nonstop for 80,000 years. Their thriving population is a testament to their ability to The seasons are the orchestrators of development. They must, however, control their development according to their physical and developmental capabilities to face external aggressions. The external environment can be disrupted and the Current climate crisis directlyThis regulation affects normal growth.
In the cell
New organs are created by plants, such as the leaves. As needed, flowers or rootsTo an external stimulus from nature. An example of this is a change in light exposure time during spring Flowering triggers.
These stimuli activate specific genes in order to develop each organ and form an adult plant. DNA can be described as a code that codes for the physical peculiarities and characteristics of a plant. These genes are the living words which must be read in order to understand their meaning. They contain information.
The gene reading phenomenon is responsible for all stages of plant development and growth, including seed germination, flower reproduction, and the formation stems, roots, and leaves. For each word of the gene, activators are required. These activators are required to position themselves at the front line of the gene to express and read the gene if the environment is favorable to growth. The gene encodes a specific growth pattern for the organ..
DELLAs determine growth
Because of this, plants can’t afford to keep growing indefinitely. Energy costs of growth. Similar to hibernating animals, plants also stop growing in winter. becoming dormantTo survive the season. Plants use safeguards called “protection” to block the reading of genes. DELLA proteins.
These proteins are only found in plants and have been constant throughout evolution. They are especially abundant in plants. Conifers, mosses and flowering plants. DELLAs can be found in the cell nucleus near DNA. They are constantly produced and can block gene activators.
To mature, plants must destroy DELLAs in order to release activators. Plants are capable of releasing activators. A system was developed to label these proteinsYou can influence their fate in the cells according to your needs. The cell adds a small protein called ubiquitin to its surface in order to degrade DELLAs. Ubiquitin acts like a postage stamp that tells the cell to deliver the DELLAs to a new destination, a “cellular trash can,” where they will be degraded.
Blocks DELLA degradation
Floods and droughts are on the riseAll over the globe. Because of their inmobility These external attacks are too much for plants to resist. These new environmental parameters can cause stress to wild plants and agricultural crops. Their growth is being disruptedThey must use energy to survive and not grow and must not degrade DELLA proteins.
This means that the DELLA proteins must be labelled in a different way, via a cousin of ubiquitin. Scientists have called it SUMO. SUMO replaces ubiquitin. It acts as a life buoy to prevent it from getting degraded.
In fact, SUMO labelling occurs exactly where ubiquitin should have been added. SUMO makes it impossible to add ubiquitin to plants. Survive adverse climatic events.
It is crucial to understand and investigate the plant growth mechanism in order to maintain sustainability in agricultural crops in the current climate crisis. Researchers are currently working to identify and select plants that can rapidly activate SUMO to allow them to grow in adverse environments.
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