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China’s participation in maritime environmental governance
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China’s participation in maritime environmental governance

The Need for Chinese Stakeholder Participation in Maritime Environmental Governance

Economic growth is dependent on better connectivity, particularly through transport links. Transport links provide access to resources but also enable producers and traders to profit from opportunities in domestic or foreign markets. This allows for economies of scale and specialization.

Market economies require that transport services are improved using modern transportation technologies and new, competitive services. This is due to real competition between different modes.

Transport logistics between Far East Europe and Western Europe are vital for world’s economic development. But today, we don’t have the luxury of this. Do not have reliable technologyTransport lines. It is important to consider a few factors that could influence the future development of eco-friendly economies.

  • Reliable transportation that is safe and environmentally friendly
  • The cheapest modes and transhipment line;
  • Fastest modes of transportation

The cheapest modeThe sea is the most common mode of transport, but it has its pros and cons.

Currently About 98% of mutual Far East West Europe deliveries are made by maritime transport, with aviation transport and railway transport accounting for 1.5 2% and 0.5 1%, respectively. Around 80% of Far East West Europe cargoes is transported in containers. This includes approximately 90% of cargoes from the Far East to West Europe (imports), as well as 70 75% cargoes from West Europe (exports).

Figure 1. Figure 1.Transhipment lines connecting Far East and Western Europe. Source : IFIMES-2021.

These data indicate that rail is a viable option to both air and sea for trade between Europe and Far East.

On a global scale, sea transport delivers Over 80%of all global cargo. Sea transportation plays a significant role in world commerce. Additionally, it is the most cost-effective and economical way to transport cargoes.

Maritime routes are corridors that span a few kilometres in length and connect economic regions. They also overcome land transport discontinuities. International maritime shipping routes have to pass through certain areas, such as passages and capes. These routes are located between major markets, such as North America, East Asia and Western Europe.

Figure 2. Figure 2. Northern shipping. The Arctic is home to major transport routes. Source: Centre Port Canada, 2008.

To dateThere are several transhipment routes by sea that form a global transport logistics network.

  • The busiest North Atlantic routeConnects the ports on the Atlantic coast of America to the ports in Western Europe
  • The second busiest Route Passes Through the Suez Canal.
  • The third busiest RouteIt is Through the Panama Canal
  • Routes to West AfricaConnect the Atlantic ports of Europe and North America via Cape of Good Hope with Africa’s West and South East coasts. This is the same route that super-tankers transporting oil from the Middle East and Europe take.
  • South American routes via the Strait of MagellanConnect Europe and the Atlantic coast to Brazil, Uruguay, or Argentina.
  • Routes in the North Pacific OceanConnect the Pacific coasts of the USA and Canada to Japan and China.
  • Routes through Honolulu (Samoa), Samoa, and Fiji Islands, as well as through Tahiti & the Society IslandsConnect the Pacific Coast of the USA with New Zealand, Australia.
  • The Northern Sea Route

This is the fastest route between Europe and Asia.

These transhipment routes allow for global freight circulation, in part due to the economic activities and resources they provide more efficient access.

Figure 3.: Maritime Shipping Routes & Chokepoints. Source: Port Economics, Management and Policy, Dr. Jean Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University. n.d.

So, the shipping line that links Far East to the Far East is called the “warm waters” (red). port of Rotterdam in Netherlands for the deliveryOf goods to the Balkan Peninsula, which lies at the intersection of transit communications in Europe, Asia, and Africa, today has Amazing logistics opportunities. Currently, 80%Cargo from Far East to Europe is transported through the Atlantic ocean to the ports in Northern Europe. The warm waters shipping route through the Arabian sea, the Suez canal, and the Balkans cuts down the transport time by 7-10 day. BeatitudesTransport infrastructure is a vital need in the region. This is especially true in the Balkan Peninsula. It has entered a period stable development following riots, wars, and other serious infrastructure damage. The transshipment line is the cheapest and most cost-effective, but it does not meet the second criteria in terms of timeframe.See Figure 1).

The Southern Seas provide great opportunities for global shipment.

  • The Straits of Malacca & Singapore The shortest route between Pacific and Indian Oceans.
  • The Phillips Channel in Singapore Strait
  • The South China SeaIt is a crucial shipping route and a subject of contention because oil and natural gaz resources are present.
  • The Cook Strait It is located between the main islands that make up New Zealand.
  • The Strait of Bab-El-Mandeb The shortest trade route between East Asia, the Indian Ocean and Europe is the Mediterranean region.
  • The Strait of Hormuz Links the Persian Gulf to the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea;
  • The Suez Canal (Including Gubal Strait) ) Provides the shortest route from the Atlantic to Indian oceans.
  • The Cape Good Hope represents the extreme tip of Africa separating the Atlantic and Indian oceans;
  • The Strait of Gibraltar The Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea are connected;
  • The Bosporus and Dardanelles StraitsSeparate the Sea of Marmara and the Aegean, Black Seas.
  • The Strait of Dover Connects the Baltic and North Seas
  • The Oresund Strait It is a 115km long passage connecting Denmark and Sweden, the North Sea and Baltic.
  • The Danish Straits are a system that straits between the Scandinavian Peninsula and Jutland Peninsulas.
  • Panama Canalis the main crossing point between Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Strait of Magellan used to be the only route from the Atlantic Ocean towards the Pacific Ocean.
  • The Strait of Florida serves as the main connection between the United States, and all points to south and west;
  • The St. Lawrence River This major waterway runs through North America and connects the Great Lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.
Figure 4.: The Northern Sea Route & the Northern Transport Corridor. Source: The Northern Sea Route – Dreams and Reality in Far North. Marlene Laruel is a Lecturer at George Washington University (USA). [Solkovo, 2020].

These chokepoints are vital for global trade. However, any disruption to trade flows through these chokepoints could have a significant effect on the world’s economy. Many of these bottlenecks are found near politically unstable countries which increases the risk of their use and access being compromised, such as through piracy. Closures are rare. They have only occurred in war situations where one party prevented another from using the chokepoint. Even if it were temporary, the closure of a maritime chokepoint in today’s global economy would have significant economic consequences. It would disrupt trade flows and cause disruption to some supply chains (e.g. oil). These are the potentialCommonly, the use of military naval assets for sea lanes protection is justified on the basis of risks and impacts, even though such benefits may be difficult to prove.

Global warming is causing massive ice sheets to melt over time, creating a threat to the environment and economic opportunities.

So, there is another shipping line (cold water blue line) which can be used for shipping to other waters. EmergedAs a result, there are now shorter transport waterways within ice-free zones. There are three routes that you can take, each one of which is important.

Geographically, the North waterways are very advantageous. The Northwest Passage connects Pacific and Atlantic along the northern coasts of North America. It runs through Arctic waters from Baffin Bay and Davis Straits to the Bering Sea. This reduces the distance between Far East Asia (via Panama), and the American East coast (via Panama), by approximately 7,000 km.

The North East Passage links the Atlantic coast of Western Europe and Northern Europe with the Pacific coastline of Northeast Asia via Russian Arctic coastline. This reduces the distance between the two continents by around 40%, compared to traditional warm seas transport routes via Suez Canal or Panama Canal.

Figure 5. Source: Created and maintained by Author (IFIMES, 2021).

The Arctic Bridge is a seasonal route that reduces the distance between North American and European continents via Arctic Ocean. The observation however shows that the transshipment route from the North Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean directly over the Central Arctic Ocean (the so called Arctic Bridge) may be possible earlier than expected due climate change.

The cold waters shipping lines (blue) will enable cargo to be shipped to West Europe quicker than the 48 days it takes to travel via the Suez Canal from the Northern ports of Far East and Rotterdam. This is because the North sea route has 2.8 thousand more miles than the route through the Suez canal. (See Figure 1).

The reliability criteria also plays an important role. Analyzing and estimating the CO2Emissions directly caused by transport between Far East Europe and West Europe by air and sea. It has been assumed that a container ship carrying a TEU results in emissions of Around 0.5 tonnes CO2. These emissions may fall in the future if there is a decrease in the average value of goods shipped by sea and if ships sail at lower speeds and are more efficient.

One of the benefits of transhipment lines in the Northern Seas is the lower risk of cargo loss due to the Indian Ocean’s climate, which passes through the line. The Indian Ocean tropical storms, which can cause significant destruction and sometimes sink cargo, can sometimes lead to significant financial loss and sometimes the loss of a contract with the buyer. These tropical cyclones are usually experienced during typhoon season. They can last more than six months. From May through November. The climatic features along the southern route may cause the canal to be closed for navigation for up 6 months. This can make it unsafe and, in some cases, unprofitable for transport companies. The ice cover keeps water fluctuations from causing storms on the Northern Sea Route’s sea expanses almost year-round. Thus. The severe storms of the South are not comparable to the turbulent conditions of transport on the northern seas.

Another advantage that the blue transhipment routes enjoy is the reduction in the use of cement, which can be harmful to the environment. Cement is an important material for the construction of new infrastructure (especially roads). More than 6%global carbon emissions. It is possible to shift the transportation mode to sea transport, which will reduce the number of roads built on the ground.

It is EstimateThis cargo is currently transported by maritime and air (white shipping  line) modes between Europe and the Far East, will in future shift to rail as a result of improved services attributed to the transhipment routes. It isClearly indicated Around 2.5 million TEUs could be transferred to rail from maritime transport and 0.5million from air transport by 2040. This is equivalent to 50-60 additional trains per day or 2 to 3 trains an hour in each direction. This is a concern regarding the environment. If maritime services lose their most sensitive cargo to rail, they might in fact sail their ships slower. This will prolong transit times, reduce fuel costs, and thus prices, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions.

A cold-water shipping service is also beneficial, and it does not have to be within the specified timeframe. Capacity. It is often referred to as the shortest route between West Europe, Far East, and Europe. It also has the lowest risk (e.g., Somali pirates), and there are no restrictions on the ship’s size, unlike the route through Suez Canal. Current data clearly shows that the cold-water transhipment route will make it possible to ship cargo to Europe faster via sea. It will also reduce the route by 20-30%.2Emissions) and human resources. To fully exploit this opportunity, however, it takes a lot of work to improve navigation and install safety-related infrastructure.

Figure 6.: Map of possible routes between Shanghai, Rotterdam. Source: Map of possible routes between Shanghai, Rotterdam created by Author (IFIMES), 2021

To make the most of the Arctic’s energy potential, the countries in the region are putting extra effort into developing the main transhipment routes to the North. One of these routes is being developed by the United States. The Northern Sea RouteThere are great opportunities.

The Northern Sea Route can be found here The shortest searoute between the European and Far East parts of Russia; it passes through the Arctic Ocean seas (Barents. Kara, Laptev. East Siberian. Chukchi.Figure 4).

The route via the NSR from St. Petersburg to Vladivostok is only 14.000km, while the more popular route via the Suez Canal is more than 23.000km. This route is also extremely popular. AdvantageousIn terms of delivery time, and route length, many countries in the East Asian region are significantly faster than those in Western and Northern Europe. The distance between Rotterdam, Europe, and Yokohama, Japan via the Suez Canal is more than 11.100 nautical miles. However, the Northern Sea Route’s length is only 7.000 nautical mile, which is 37% less. The Northern Sea Route is also advantageous to other ports. For instance, the route from Hong Kong (South Korea), Shanghai, and Busan to Rotterdam are shorter. 11%, 24%, or 29%respectively (Figure 5).

Even though conditions are better in the NSR than elsewhere, significant improvements are still required to support navigation and better communication with the NSR.  The NSR can be used in conjunction with high-speed railways that connect the east and the west of Russia, and provide access to deep regions of Russia and the ports of both the Arctic and Pacific Oceans.See Figure 5.). The NSR as well as the supporting frame of railways play a vital role in strengthening transport connectivity between continents.

Already 2020 The Russian authorities They were intendedTo increase cargo transportation along the NSR by 40 to 43 million tons. According to President V. Putin’s decree, transportation should reach 80 millions tons by 2024. If the conditions are favorable, the volume of transportation should reach 100 million by 2030 and amount to approximately 120 million tons. The supply of Taimyr coal from India is expected to ensure the growth. Many plans are in place to significantly increase international transit traffic along the Northern Sea Route by 2030.

The American partThe Arctic region is home to the construction of the northern parts of a fixed transportation link between Alaska and Canada. This will open up international development programs that will link the United States and East Asia in the creation a high-tech, fusion-, and fission-powered backbone to a new world economy.

The proposed Alaska Alberta (A2A) rail corridor The route will connect Alaska, USA with Alberta, Canada. The route will link Alaska’s deep-water ports with the existing railway network. It will also connect to Canada via the Canadian railway system.

Apart from that, the issue is of building the Eurasia America. transport corridor via the Bering StraitGlobalization is a catalyst for the development of the global economy.

Thus, the development of a new logistics hub of the world’s transcontinental routes will contribute to a significant increase in the economic well-being of the regions of the Far East, Eurasia, and North America, which will receive additional infrastructure and economic development (See Figure 6). A new road network will make it easier for the Far East to trade minerals with other regions.

Equally important are the efforts of the countries Northern EuropeAnd ChinaIn the development of transport logistics for the North, which eventually aims to connect the railway network in Eurasia (Russian, Chinese BRI, and European TEN–T) with the maritime transport artery through the Northern Seas.

There is a steady fixed ling between. Sweden Denmark (the 16-kilometer-long resund LinkThe link between Malmo, Sweden (right) and Copenhagen, Denmark, (left) was completed in 2000 and opened to traffic. However, the stable transportation connection across Scandinavia is not fully developed (especially in both the Gulf of Bothnia or Baltic Sea), which creates a lack of connectivity. A gapBetween the Baltic and North Sea countries.

  •  the HH Tunnel Between Denmark and Sweden
  • The Arctic railway line and the Arctic Link NSR to Northern Europe to China
  • The Artic Railway To increase railway connectivity in North Europe
  • The Pol-Corridor fixed connection;
  • The International North South Transport Corridorhereinafter INSTC) From Finland to Norway, and further South
  • The Helsinki Tallinn Undersea Tunnel Between Finland and Estonia;
  • The Nordic Logistic Coridor (NLC);
  • Baltic Sea Bridge Kvarken Multimodal Link between Sweden and Finland
  • Rail Baltica Railway ProjectTo improve railway links between Central Europe and the Baltic States;

Today, ChinaIt is spending a lot of money on the development of Greenland. Shenghe Resources, a Shanghai-based company, bought a 12.5% share in Greenland Minerals and Energy A/S in 2017. This made it its largest shareholder and allowed them to increase their stake in the flagship Greenland uranium miner in Kwanefjeld. Get up to 60%.

Another Arctic country Iceland, receives special attention from China also. Iceland’s central location in the northern hemisphere makes it an ideal northern entrance to Europe from East Asia, similar to the prosperity of the port of Piraeus in Greece, which in a few years should handle up to 6.2 million TEU per year, which will make it one of the five largest ports in Europe. As the Arctic shipping network expands, Iceland could become the same transhipment hub for the Atlantic Arctic.

China is also actively exploring transhipment options in the Arctic Ocean basin. Many experts link the Trans-Arctic Sea Route (hereinafter TSR), as a climatic factor that China should use to develop the Arctic. China’s Northern Sea Route is a goldmine. With it, China can increase its exports to existing partner countries as well as discover new trade routes.

Climate change offers additional opportunities for the NSR development, in addition to the Arctic powers. If global warming continues in the future, then the Arctic Ocean’s ice thickness and amount should decrease. According to The forecasts by Norwegian scientistsIt is possible that there will be no Arctic sea ice by 2080.

As you can see, the aforementioned are currently in effectMost beneficially in terms of the time-fame is the land (green) shipping line, due to the fact that current Maritime (warm waters red) transport delivery speeds remain rather low (including those of modern container ships). (Vessels traveling along the Far East West Europe route travel at 20-25 knots, while the average travel time including the Suez Canal passage, port calls and other stops is 35-45 days. There are always delays due to natural or other causes (such waiting for loading at the port where you are leaving). This line is more efficient than the blue (cold waters) transhipment line due to its speed, regularity, and accuracy of delivery.See Figure 1.This will dramatically reduce the time taken between Far East consumer markets and Europe’s. However, to reach agreement on price, timing, and environmental friendly standards, the growing push for decarbonization economies must be implemented green construction methods. Unfortunately, this approach will take decades before it is adopted. Could not have. Understanding this fact should guide the development of all countries on the Globe. It is crucial to realize that global warming issues should be approached from all angles. We must consider all possible solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and meet this challenge. We cannot continue to deny the impact of climate change on our lives and the future generations.

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